Early in Project GUTS' research we found that a small percentage of students thought the modeled complex systems were not complex systems because the agents had a "leader" directing them, namely the programmer / modeler. While it might be true if the programmer gave explicit instructions to the agents on where to be at all times such as "move to x1,y1 at time z1", "move to x2,y2 at time z2" etc. in the systems we model we tell agents how to INTERACT with other agents (and environment) that may be changing independently and behaving with some randomness. In such systems, the programmer or modeler is not the leader of the system.
Does this make sense?